During the month of February, Eyewitness News is taking some time to explore untold stories from the African-American community in a series called “Hidden Histories.” The story of one man’s struggle to get a good education for his children caught the attention of Eyewitness News’ Anthony Bailey.

By ANTHONY BAILEY | February 14, 2017

Edmond Wysinger – a little-known south Valley resident – just wanted to enroll his son in the best school he could find. After being turned down, he fought a fight that would change education across the Valley and beyond.

It’s a pursuit of history and culture that has kept research historian Michael Smith gathering knowledge about his community for years.

“My wife is German-Italian – my daughters are mixed. So it was important to me to show them the culture of Tulare County.

If a picture is worth a thousand words, then a walk through a cemetery can be a wealth of information.

What appeared to be one of the most insignificant, barely legible stones may very well have been the biggest gem of them all.

Eventually he saved $1,000 and bought his freedom.

In 1849, Edmond Wysinger was a slave part of a group traveling from South Carolina to the town of Grass Valley.

So what brought him west? It was the California Gold Rush.

Edmond, along with his German slave owner and others worked at the surface mines.

Eventually he saved $1,000 and bought his freedom. Once free, he traveled south – stopping in Merced where he would meet his future wife Pernessa. The couple married in 1862, and they settled in Visalia.

The Civil War would end in 1865, but another battle was in its infancy – and Wysinger was about to be an unwitting soldier.

Wysinger, a laborer and part time preacher, had eight children – six boys and two girls. He always stressed the value of education.

“Visalia Colored School”

His children’s first formal education came at what was known as the Visalia Colored School. Writings housed at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington D.C. were by Mervyn Shipley. They describe the first place where African-American children were being educated – it was in a barn of a black farmer.

Within a year, the teacher – Mr. Scott – would purchase an acre of property and open a private school in town. A few years later, it would be annexed into the Visalia School District.

Meanwhile, construction was underway across town for the Visalia School. This campus was only for white children of the town’s roughly 2,800 residents.

A historical marker sits just behind the town library.

In the years that followed, state laws evolved and required school facilities for whites and non-whites to be equal. A quick glance at both and the contrast couldn’t be more apparent. The policy was a dream deferred.

“I can give you a shack and call it a school and build a mansion and call it a school, too – they’re not equal,” Smith said.

The inequality prompted Wysinger to attempt to enroll his son Arthur into the Visalia School in 1888.

Visalia Colored School (Left) and Visalia School (Right)

He was turned down by the district – then lost his case in the Tulare County Court.

Eyewitness News obtained a copy of the original court transcripts. In it, the school district laid out their argument explaining why they wouldn’t let Arthur enroll. The district would prevail initially – Wysinger’s attempt to appeal was also blocked.

“Visalia Colored School”

Undeterred, he took his case to the California Supreme Court.

On Jan. 29, 1890, there would be better news for the Wysingers. The court ruled that schools statewide could no longer have separate-but-equal schools for African-American children.

That March, The California Supreme Court also overturned the Tulare County lower court’s ruling. Now Arthur would have to be admitted to the Visalia School.

Edmond would die a year later.

“He never seen his son enter that school,” Smith said.

His victory would reverberate across the country

His victory would reverberate across the country. Not only would Wysinger’s verdict ensure that California’s children would no longer be forced into separate schools, but Eyewitness News discovered that Wysinger’s case would be used as legal precedent in the appellate briefs filed with the United States Supreme Court in the landmark case Brown vs. Board of Education.

The Brown decision would force school integration nationwide.

Billy Ripley is a descendant of Edmond Wysinger.

“We have doctors, lawyers – there was a Wysinger girl that I just seen on Facebook – I don’t know her, but she’s a cousin, and they were swearing her in to be a judge,” Ripley said.

Success – he said – came from a focus on education.

“My sister went to Fresno State – I went to Reedley College and Fresno City [College],” Ripley said.

Ripley, whose grandfather was one of Edmond’s sons, would go on to a 20-year career with the Department of Agriculture.

He recalled how seeing stadiums full of students in recent days put the family legacy into perspective.

“Did my grandfather actually do this?”

“Did my grandfather actually do this?” Ripley said.

Ripley’s son Merlin said family members used stories of the family legacy to motivate him when he was younger.

“There are people in our family that went out and fought so that you could go to school,” Merlin said. It’s an approach the Bay Area surgical aide plans to use one day on his own children.




Adolfo Reyes


Principal Adolfo Reyes (Visalia Unified School District) discusses the state of education in Visalia and the importance of diversity, inclusivity, and representation.

An abridged timeline of Edmond Wysinger’s life, the impact of his fight for desegregation, and the opposition to integration and equality

  • Edmond Wysinger born

  • Gold Rush


    Wysinger traveled from South Carolina to California with his slave owner for the Gold Rush

  • California becomes a state

  • Marriage


    Wysinger marries Pernessa and moves to Visalia

  • “Visalia Colored School”


    Visalia Colored School is established at the Hinds family farmhouse

  • “Visalia White School”


    Visalia White School is established

  • New Grounds


    Visalia Colored School purcharses land

  • Visalia School District


    Visalia Colored School officially joins the Visalia school district

  • Wysinger’s son


    Wysinger attempts to enroll his son in the Visalia White School

  • Surpreme Court


    California Supreme Court outlaws separate schools for black and white children

  • Ruling Overturned


    California Supreme Court overturns lower court rulings, officially allowing Wysinger’s son Arthur to attend the Visalia White School

  • Brown vs. Board of Education


    The Surpeme Court overturned Plessy vs. Ferguson and and declared segregation in public schools violated the Equal Protection clause of the 14th Amendment

  • Little Rock Crisis


    The desegregation of Little Rock Central High School. Top: Arkansas National Guards under orders from Governor Orval Faubus deny African American student Terrence Roberts, of the Little Rock Nine, entrance to Little Rock Central High on September 4, 1957. Bottom: Federal troops ordered to Little Rock Central High by US President Dwight Eisenhower to enforce federal court orders to desegregate escort the first nine African American students at the end of a school day. Photos courtesy of the National Park Service




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